Besides wood for timber or fuel, woodland and forest trees can offer a variety of products useful to humans without having to kill the tree. Those are often associated with tropical forests but there are many uses in the UK still. NWFPs include:

  • turpentine and rosin from pine resin
  • edible nuts, fruit and fungi for people and livestock
  • foliage for the floristry trade
  • natural colourants and dye stuffs
  • natural medicinal products
  • flavours and fragrances
  • sap for fermenting for wine or syrups
  • gums, resins and latex
  • foliage to feed livestock

Stripping bark for tannin for the leather industry does often kill the tree – but cork oaks can be stripped of their valuable natural product every few years which grows back again. For more on non-timber forest products from Scotland see www.forestharvest.org.uk The FAO also publishes the Non-Wood Forestry Products Digest by e-mail. Register at www.fao.org/forestry/site/12980/en.